Rapheal, “The Marriage of the Virgin” (1504), oil on roundheaded panel



We can see symmetrical balance in this painting by looking down the middle and creating an imaginative dividing line that cuts the image in half. If both sides of the piece are for the most part very similar, then we can say that it is symmetrical.



Salvador Dalí, “The Persistence of Memory” (1931), oil on canvas



The main focal area of this piece is the left hand side. In order to balance the piece Dalí added the back mountains and the other white clock, thing on the lower right to help asymmetrically balance out the image.



Source Image



This photo gives us a sense of imbalance. The strong dominating subject on the right is overwhelmed by the expanse of blue ocean. Having the dominating and overwhelming together help create a balance of imbalance.





Sandra Botticelli, “Allegoria della Primavera” (1478), Tempora on canvas



This painting shows contrast in that the women are shown very bright in dark contrast to the black forested background. Having the large difference in value creates emphasis on the figures rather than the background.



Paul Klee, “Ad Marginen” (1930), watercolor varnished


This painting illustrates the principle of emphasis by using isolation. The red sun, I believe that is what it is, is being isolated all alone in the middle with nothing else touching it. Doing so makes this the first thing we look at when viewing this image.



Henri Rousseau, “Carnival Evening” (1886), oil on canvas – Museum of Art, Philadelphia



This painting creates emphasis on the bright white subjects by strategically placing them down in the lower middle where our eyes are led. They are also kind of placed in-between two rule of thirds points on the bottom.

Scale and Proportion

Scale and Proportion:


Gustave Caillebotte, “Paris Street; Rainy Day,” 1877, oil painting – Art Institute of Chicago

In this painting, we can see scale and proportion in that the figures in the front, which we see are closer to us, and much larger than the ones in the back of street. Having this accurate difference in the size of the different figures helps us see that the scale and proportions are accurate in the drawing.


Alternating Rhythm:


Edvard Munch, “The Scream,” 1893, oil, tempera, and pastel on cardboard – National Gallery, Oslo, Norway

This famous painting demonstrates alternating rhythm in that it create the rhythm of similar colors that repeat all around the painting. There are two different schemes of dark blues and greens, and warm orange, red, and yellows.


Progressive Rhythm:



Edward Weston, “Artichoke, Halved,” 1930, Photograph

This photo demonstrates progressive rhythm in that it takes the shape of the artichoke fibers and repeats itself while slowly changing its shape and size slightly each time it moves further out.





Escher, “Circle Limit III,” 1959, Woodcut

Patterns can be similar to progressions or rhythms. Escher used his pattern of the birds to create his progressive rhythm in the circle. The pattern is the repeated use of similar or identical elements in a work of art.





Seurat, La Grande Jatte, 1886, oil on canvas – Art Institute, Chicago

This painting expresses harmony in that the colors and color scheme create a harmonic balance of similar greens and grays. It also has harmony in the repeating shapes of the characters on the grass.




Chagall, “I and the Village,” 1911, oil on canvas – Museum of Modern Art, New York

This piece is a example of variety because it has many different colors and shapes that don’t seem to have a pattern or scheme. It utilizes many elements of art to create interest.





Debbie Hodge, title unknown, mixed media, date unknown. Image Source

When I think of proximity I think of things being close together. We will naturally group things together even thought they may not be designed to be together. In the work above, you would assume that it is a group of people, but it also could be three individuals.





René Magritte – Golconde, 1953, oil on canvas,

The idea of repetition in art is the repeated patterns, or lack of patterns, or elements in a piece of work. This piece has the repeated element of the business man. It also has the repeating windows and colors on the buildings.





Andy Goldsworthy, “Ice Spiral,” 1997, made out of ice. Source Image

This piece is an example of the Gestalt principle of continuation. I watched a video of how he made this and there is not a back side of the ice, it is connected to the tree and does NOT go all the way around the tree. We assume it continues around the tree becasue of continuation be in reality is does not continue.





The Stefaneschi Tryptych, c. 1330, tempera on panel, Pinacoteca, Vatican

These paintings, although connected, demonstrate continuity. All the paintings display an overall theme and continuation of the story. Just like the economy of line projects that we did in class, continuity creates a visual way of connecting multiple pieces.