Leonardo de Vinci, “Mona Lisa” (1505), oil on panel – Louvre



Being one of the most famous paintings of all time, the Mona Lisa has a strong figure to ground relationship in that she is the figure in front and is distinctively separated from the ground in the back.



“Triumph of the Name of Jesus,” by Giovanni Battista Gaulli, on the ceiling of the Church of the Gesu



Creating illusionistic space is making a work that makes the viewer appear in the same space as the work. In this case, the viewer is in the chapel and the ceiling is made to look like a ceiling, but it has many heavenly bodies in it.


Compositional (Pictorial):

Raffaello Sanzio, “The School of Athens” (1511), Apostolic Palace, Vatican City



The idea of compositional space, or more commonly referred to as pictorial space, is that the piece can be “looked into.” Meaning that it has depth and space. this painting appears as though it continues on far aways into the back.



Leonardo de Vinci, “The Last Supper” (1494–1498), tempora on gesso – Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan



This famous painting shows the idea of perspective in that the back walls move back towards a single vanishing point, thus creating the illusion of space.