This famous painting demonstrates alternating rhythm in that it create the rhythm of similar colors that repeat all around the painting. There are two different schemes of dark blues and greens, and warm orange, red, and yellows.
This photo demonstrates progressive rhythm in that it takes the shape of the artichoke fibers and repeats itself while slowly changing its shape and size slightly each time it moves further out.
Patterns can be similar to progressions or rhythms. Escher used his pattern of the birds to create his progressive rhythm in the circle. The pattern is the repeated use of similar or identical elements in a work of art.