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Invariance is the belief that any recognizable object will still be recognizable no matter how much it is altered or moved, with some limit of course. Take typography for example. Their are thousands of different fonts and yet people still recognize them instantly.



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In this conceptual drawing, we again mentally create images of triangle, spheres, and curved lines with the use of Gestalt. Using this principle, there are many possibilities for creating images without creating them. It relates to positive and negative space as well.



Rapheal, “The Marriage of the Virgin” (1504), oil on roundheaded panel



We can see symmetrical balance in this painting by looking down the middle and creating an imaginative dividing line that cuts the image in half. If both sides of the piece are for the most part very similar, then we can say that it is symmetrical.



Salvador Dalí, “The Persistence of Memory” (1931), oil on canvas



The main focal area of this piece is the left hand side. In order to balance the piece Dalí added the back mountains and the other white clock, thing on the lower right to help asymmetrically balance out the image.



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This photo gives us a sense of imbalance. The strong dominating subject on the right is overwhelmed by the expanse of blue ocean. Having the dominating and overwhelming together help create a balance of imbalance.




Leonardo de Vinci, “Mona Lisa” (1505), oil on panel – Louvre



Being one of the most famous paintings of all time, the Mona Lisa has a strong figure to ground relationship in that she is the figure in front and is distinctively separated from the ground in the back.



“Triumph of the Name of Jesus,” by Giovanni Battista Gaulli, on the ceiling of the Church of the Gesu



Creating illusionistic space is making a work that makes the viewer appear in the same space as the work. In this case, the viewer is in the chapel and the ceiling is made to look like a ceiling, but it has many heavenly bodies in it.


Compositional (Pictorial):

Raffaello Sanzio, “The School of Athens” (1511), Apostolic Palace, Vatican City



The idea of compositional space, or more commonly referred to as pictorial space, is that the piece can be “looked into.” Meaning that it has depth and space. this painting appears as though it continues on far aways into the back.



Leonardo de Vinci, “The Last Supper” (1494–1498), tempora on gesso – Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan



This famous painting shows the idea of perspective in that the back walls move back towards a single vanishing point, thus creating the illusion of space.